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With its widespread effect on ecologies and cultures, the rabbit or bunny is, in many areas of the world, a part of daily life—as food, clothing, a companion, and as a source of artistic inspiration.
Male rabbits are called bucks ; females are called does. An older term for an adult rabbit is coney , while rabbit once referred only to the young animals.
More recently, the term kit or kitten has been used to refer to a young rabbit. A group of rabbits is known as a colony or nest or, occasionally, a warren , though this more commonly refers to where the rabbits live.
Rabbits and hares were formerly classified in the order Rodentia rodent until , when they were moved into a new order, Lagomorpha which also includes pikas.
Below are some of the genera and species of the rabbit. Oryctolagus cuniculus European rabbit Feral Tasmanian specimen.
Hares are precocial , born relatively mature and mobile with hair and good vision, while rabbits are altricial , born hairless and blind, and requiring closer care.
Hares and cottontail rabbits live a relatively solitary life in a simple nest above the ground, while most rabbits live in social groups underground in burrows or warrens.
Hares are generally larger than rabbits, with ears that are more elongated, and with hind legs that are larger and longer.
Hares have not been domesticated , while descendants of the European rabbit are commonly bred as livestock and kept as pets. Rabbits have long been domesticated.
Beginning in the Middle Ages , the European rabbit has been widely kept as livestock , starting in ancient Rome. Selective breeding has generated a wide variety of rabbit breeds , many of which since the early 19th century are also kept as pets.
Some strains of rabbit have been bred specifically as research subjects. As livestock, rabbits are bred for their meat and fur.
The earliest breeds were important sources of meat, and so became larger than wild rabbits, but domestic rabbits in modern times range in size from dwarf to giant.
Rabbit fur, prized for its softness, can be found in a broad range of coat colors and patterns, as well as lengths.
The Angora rabbit breed, for example, was developed for its long, silky fur, which is often hand-spun into yarn. Other domestic rabbit breeds have been developed primarily for the commercial fur trade , including the Rex , which has a short plush coat.
Rabbits have two sets of incisor teeth, one behind the other. This way they can be distinguished from rodents , with which they are often confused.
However, recent DNA analysis and the discovery of a common ancestor has supported the view that they do share a common lineage, and thus rabbits and rodents are now often referred to together as members of the superorder Glires.
Though plantigrade at rest, rabbits are on their toes while running, assuming a more digitigrade form. Rabbits use their strong claws for digging and along with their teeth for defense.
Each hind foot has four toes but no dewclaw. Most wild rabbits especially compared to hares have relatively full, egg-shaped bodies.
The soft coat of the wild rabbit is agouti in coloration or, rarely, melanistic , which aids in camouflage. The tail of the rabbit with the exception of the cottontail species is dark on top and white below.
Cottontails have white on the top of their tails. As a result of the position of the eyes in its skull, the rabbit has a field of vision that encompasses nearly degrees, with just a small blind spot at the bridge of the nose.
The Bones of the hind limbs consist of long bones the femur, tibia, fibula, and phalanges as well as short bones the tarsals. These bones are created through endochondral ossification during development.
The femur articulates with the tibia, but not the fibula, which is fused to the tibia. The tibia and fibula articulate with the tarsals of the pes, commonly called the foot.
The hind limbs of the rabbit are longer than the front limbs. This allows them to produce their hopping form of locomotion.
Longer hind limbs are more capable of producing faster speeds. Hares , which have longer legs than cottontail rabbits , are able to move considerably faster.
The hind feet have four long toes that allow for this and are webbed to prevent them from spreading when hopping. Instead, they have coarse compressed hair that offers protection.
Rabbits have muscled hind legs that allow for maximum force, maneuverability, and acceleration that is divided into three main parts; foot, thigh, and leg.
The hind limbs of a rabbit are an exaggerated feature, that are much longer than the forelimbs providing more force. Rabbits run on their toes to gain the optimal stride during locomotion.
The force put out by the hind limbs is contributed to both the structural anatomy of the fusion tibia and fibula, and muscular features.
Action pressure from muscles creates force that is then distributed through the skeletal structures.
Rabbits that generate less force, putting less stress on bones are more prone to osteoporosis due to bone rarefaction. For example, hares have a greater resistant to fatigue than cottontails.
The quadriceps muscles are in charge of force production when jumping. Complimenting these muscles are the hamstrings which aid in short bursts of action.
These muscles play off of one another in the same way as the plantar flexors and doriflexors, contributing to the generation and actions associated with force.
Within the order lagomorphs , the ears are utilized to detect and avoid predators. In the family leporidae , the ears are typically longer than they are wide.
For example, in black tailed jack rabbits , their long ears cover a greater surface area relative to their body size that allow them to detect predators from far away.
Contrasted to cotton tailed rabbits, their ears are smaller and shorter, requiring predators to be closer to detect them before fleeing.
Evolution has favored rabbits to have shorter ears so the larger surface area does not cause them to lose heat in more temperate regions.
The opposite can be seen in rabbits that live in hotter climates, mainly because they possess longer ears that have a larger surface area that help with dispersion of heat as well as the theory that sound does not travel well in more arid air, opposed to cooler air.
Therefore, longer ears are meant to aid the organism in detecting prey sooner rather than later in warmer temperatures. The ear muscles also aid in maintaining balance and movement when fleeing predators.
The three ossicles are called hammer, anvil, and stirrup and act to decrease sound before it hits the inner ear.
In general, the ossicles act as a barrier to the inner ear for sound energy. Inner ear fluid called endolymph receives the sound energy.
After receiving the energy, later within the inner ear there are two parts: Within the cochlea there is a basilar membrane that contains sensory hair structures utilized to send nerve signals to the brain so it can recognize different sound frequencies.
Within the vestibular apparatus the rabbit possesses three semicircular canals to help detect angular motion. Thermoregulation is the process that an organism utilizes to maintain an optimal body temperature even if there are severe external conditions.
Homeostasis of body temperature is maintained by the use of their large, highly vascularized ears that are able to change the amount of blood flow that passes through the ears.
Constriction and dilation of blood vessels in the ears are used to control the core body temperature of a rabbit. If the core temperature exceeds its optimal temperature greatly, blood flow is constricted to limit the amount of blood going through the vessels.
With this constriction, there is only a limited amount of blood that is passing through the ears where ambient heat would be able to heat the blood that is flowing through the ears and therefore, increasing the body temperature.
When the ears are constricted it again limits blood flow through the ears to conserve the optimal body temperature of the rabbit.
If the ambient temperature is either 15 degrees above or below the optimal body temperature, the blood vessels will dilate. With the blood vessels being enlarged, the blood is able to pass through the large surface area which causes it to either heat or cool down.
During the summer, the rabbit has the capability to stretch its pinnae which allows for greater surface area and increase heat dissipation.
In the winter, the rabbit does the opposite and folds its ears in order to decrease its surface area to the ambient air which would decrease their body temperature.
The jackrabbit has the largest ears within the Oryctolagus cuniculus group. Their large pinna were evolved to maintain homeostasis while in the extreme temperatures of the desert.
Rabbits are herbivores that feed by grazing on grass , forbs , and leafy weeds. In consequence, their diet contains large amounts of cellulose , which is hard to digest.
Rabbits solve this problem via a form of hindgut fermentation. They pass two distinct types of feces: Rabbits reingest their own droppings rather than chewing the cud as do cows and numerous other herbivores to digest their food further and extract sufficient nutrients.
Rabbits graze heavily and rapidly for roughly the first half-hour of a grazing period usually in the late afternoon , followed by about half an hour of more selective feeding.
Hard pellets are made up of hay-like fragments of plant cuticle and stalk, being the final waste product after redigestion of soft pellets.
These are only released outside the burrow and are not reingested. Soft pellets are usually produced several hours after grazing, after the hard pellets have all been excreted.
Rabbits are hindgut digesters. This means that most of their digestion takes place in their large intestine and cecum.
Rabbits eat these to meet their nutritional requirements; the mucous coating allows the nutrients to pass through the acidic stomach for digestion in the intestines.
This process allows rabbits to extract the necessary nutrients from their food. The chewed plant material collects in the large cecum, a secondary chamber between the large and small intestine containing large quantities of symbiotic bacteria that help with the digestion of cellulose and also produce certain B vitamins.
The soft feces form here and contain up to five times the vitamins of hard feces. After being excreted, they are eaten whole by the rabbit and redigested in a special part of the stomach.
The pellets remain intact for up to six hours in the stomach; the bacteria within continue to digest the plant carbohydrates. This double-digestion process enables rabbits to use nutrients that they may have missed during the first passage through the gut, as well as the nutrients formed by the microbial activity and thus ensures that maximum nutrition is derived from the food they eat.
Rabbits are incapable of vomiting. Rabbits may appear to be crepuscular , but their natural inclination is toward nocturnal activity. In addition to being at risk of disease from common pathogens such as Bordetella bronchiseptica and Escherichia coli , rabbits can contract the virulent, species-specific viruses RHD "rabbit hemorrhagic disease", a form of calicivirus  or myxomatosis.
Among the parasites that infect rabbits are tapeworms such as Taenia serialis , external parasites including fleas and mites , coccidia species, and Toxoplasma gondii.
Rabbits are prey animals and are therefore constantly aware of their surroundings. For instance, in Mediterranean Europe, rabbits are the main prey of red foxes, badgers, and Iberian lynxes.
Rabbits have a remarkably wide field of vision, and a good deal of it is devoted to overhead scanning.
Their strong teeth allow them to eat and to bite in order to escape a struggle. Rabbit habitats include meadows , woods , forests , grasslands , deserts and wetlands.
A group of burrows is called a warren. They are not naturally found in most of Eurasia , where a number of species of hares are present.
The European rabbit has been introduced to many places around the world. Rabbits have been a source of environmental problems when introduced into the wild by humans.
As a result of their appetites, and the rate at which they breed, feral rabbit depredation can be problematic for agriculture.
Gassing , barriers fences , shooting, snaring, and ferreting have been used to control rabbit populations, but the most effective measures are diseases such as myxomatosis myxo or mixi , colloquially and calicivirus.
In Europe, where rabbits are farmed on a large scale, they are protected against myxomatosis and calicivirus with a genetically modified virus.
The virus was developed in Spain, and is beneficial to rabbit farmers. If it were to make its way into wild populations in areas such as Australia, it could create a population boom, as those diseases are the most serious threats to rabbit survival.
Rabbits in Australia and New Zealand are considered to be such a pest that land owners are legally obliged to control them. In some areas, wild rabbits and hares are hunted for their meat, a lean source of high quality protein.
A caught rabbit may be dispatched with a sharp blow to the back of its head, a practice from which the term rabbit punch is derived. We hebben je een e-mail gestuurd.
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